Madheshis speak Madhyadesiya language, with a continuum of dialects as one moves from the east to the west (Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bajjika, Maithili, Tharu).
Madheshis celebrate a large number of festivals around the year, including Holi, Jitiya, Sama Chakewa, Dashami, Bhardutiya, Judshital, Tila Sankrait/Maghi, Chhath, Eid and Muharram.
Mithila art is traditional distinct form of painting. The unique style of paintings made on house mud-walls is also very remarkable feature of Madheshi culture.
The staple diet of the region is rice, dal (lentils soup) and curry. On festive occasions, people prepare a number of fried items of vegetables as well as many specialities. Fish is also popular in Terai.