- (Vedic/Mythical Period)

Ikshyaku or Okkāka becomes the first significant king of Madhyadesh (Madhesh)

- (Vedic/Mythical Period)

King Janak rules, capital at Janakpur;

Sita, the heroine of Ramayan, born (after 34 generation of Ikshyaku)

c. 1500 BC

Manusmiriti (2/21) defines the boundary of Madhyadesh (Madhesh)


Siddhartha Gautam (Buddha) born in Kapilvatthu, Majjhimadesh (Madhesh)

268-31 B.C

Emperor Ashoka rules

249 BC

Emperor Ashoka visits Lumbini, tax reduced and entitled to the eight part only.

ca. 353-73 AD

Emperor Samudragupta

c.500-600 AD

King Salhesh rules, capital at Mahisautha, Siraha

c. 1300 AD

Harisinghadev rules, capital at Simraunagadh (currently Simra)

1325 AD

Sultan Gayasudhin Tuglak attacks Simraunagadh

1513 – 1774 AD

Sen Kingdoms in Palpa, Makawanpur, Chaudandi, Bijaypur, Morang

1526 AD

Mughal Empire established

c. 1764 AD

British East India Company gains control over many parts of Madhesh

1768 AD

Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah attacks Kathmandu;Dismisses 12000 Tirhutia (Madheshi) armies of Jay Prakash Malla

1774 AD

Prithvi Narayan Shah attacks Makwanpur

1814-16 AD

Anglo-Gurkha WarMadheshis fight on the British side

1816 AD

British-Nepal Treaty on 8th December; British hands over Terai region between west of Koshi and east to Rapti river to Nepal


Kot Massacre takes place; Jang Bahadur becomes prime minister

1860 AD

British-Nepal Treaty; British gifts Terai region between Rapti and Mahakali rivers to Nepal for their support to the East India Company for suppressing Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 to 1859 in India

1911 AD

King George V of Britain visits Terai and hunts 21 tigers, 8 rhinos, and a bear.

1923  Dec 21

Nepal changed from British protectorate to independent nation. (MC, 12/21/01)

1934 AD

Jan 15, An 8.4 Richter scale earthquake kills thousands of people in Nepal/India

1950-51 AD

Ranas fall; King Tribhuvan regains control; interim constitution promulgated

1951 AD

Terai Congress formed led by Vedanand Jha


King Mahendra ascends throne


Nepal Citizenship Act promulgated


Nepal admitted to the United Nations


Nepalese government starts malaria eradication


Raghunath Thakur established the Madhesh Liberation Movement


Imposition of Nepali as sole language for education sparks protests


End of visa provision for Madheshis to enter Kathmandu


Terai Liberation Front established


King Mahendra issues constitution unfavourable to Madheshis


Nepalese Police kills Ramji Mishra, the leader of Terai Liberation Front


New Citizenship Act makes it harder for Madhesis to acquire citizenship.


 ”Land Reformation Act” promulgated; massive land seized from Madheshis


 Royal Nepalese Army kills Raghunath Raya Yadav, the leader of Terai Liberation Front


 Chairman of Terai Liberation Front Satyadev Mani Tripathi killed


 King Birendra ascends throne


 Raghunath Thakur dies (June 21)


Nepal Sadbhavana Council formed under Gajendra Narayan Singh to raise Madheshi issues.


Nepal’s failure to renegotiate trade and transit treaties with India, India imposes sanction across “open border”


New constitution promulgated following the agitations


Dhanapati Upadhyay Commision finds 4 million people without citizenships


Maoists launch insurgency.


Supreme Court voids 30 thousands citizenship certificates of Madheshis

March 18 1998

Supreme Court bans the use of Maithili (local) language in Rajbiraj and Janakpur Municipalities


 Maoists set up Madhesi Rashtriya Mukti Morcha (MRMM) under Jai Krishna Goit in Siliguri.


Dec 26, racial riot against Madheshis began all over the country, following  a rumour that Hrithnik Roshan, an Indian film star, allegedly spoke of his dislike for Nepal. At least 4 people killed.


Supreme Court mandates people to get work permit in the lack of citizenship certificates. Many Madheshis out of work.


Jay Krishna Goit forms the Janatantrik Tarai Mukti Morcha (JTMM).

2006 April

Following nineteen-day mass movement, king announces reinstatement of parliament.

2006 December

Nepalgunj Riot; 26-Dec, Pahadi attacks on a Madheshi gathering and the racial riot begins; Madheshis houses and shops burned, and Madheshis attacked; police and administration found supporting the attack. 30 December, Ian Martin, special representative of the UN Secretary-General, voices his concern about violent activities

2007 Jan-Feb

 Madhesh Movement;19-Jan, Maoists clash with Madheshi activists in Lahan, killing student Ramesh Kumar Mahato.20-Jan, Curfew imposed; 21 January-7 February, Movement picks up against the government, with huge public support and mass defiance of curfews, clashes between police and protestors; Almost 40 killed.

2008 January

Madhesh Movement; Massive protests against the government. A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens.

2008 May

Nepal becomes a republic.

2011 January

UN peace monitoring mission ends.

2011 March 31

Historic meeting of Madheshis took place in Kathmandu after 22 yearsDr. C. K. Raut appeals for a stronger coalition to take the Madhesh Movement to the global level

2011 May 21

Alliance for Independent Madhesh (AIM) announces manifesto and plans

2012 May

Prime Minister Bhattari dissolves the parliament